All translations, in greater or lesser degree, reflect the idiosyncrasies of each culture that receives them.This idea began to take shape at the end of the 20th century, when Susan Bassnett and André Lefevere discredited merely linguistic approaches that did the translation and pointed out the need to evolve. In his collection of essays Translation, History and Culture (1990), mentioned that the transition from Word to the text as fully communication oriented exercise unit is not sufficient, because it ignores the interaction between translation and culture regarding the impact of the first on the second. In this context, Mary Snell-Hornby proposed in their respective test expression Cultural Turn(esp. «Cultural turn”) to refer to this movement, which began to put into practice since then. This reorientation — some would say, from a formal analysis to a more pragmatic – allowed arise new issues relating to the cultural role played by translations. For example, some scholars specialized in comparative literature chose to observe the rewriting in translation as a method of handling; while others studied how to reflect the cultures of destination certain identities (racial, sexual…) in the translations. Probably, one of the fields for which translation studies has shown greater interest than the gender studies (which include women, feminist studies, LGBT, sexuality, politics, and gender, etc.), what so in vogue are on the stage current. Then, to illustrate the ideas, will be mention of two specific study fields in which the translation is used as a protest tool or as a tool to detect socio-cultural trends.
In this environment of change, women were pioneers in observing this interaction, and many feminist theoreticians such as Sherry Simon, author of Gender in Translation: Cultural Identity and the Politics of Translation (1996), denounced certain parallelism between the situation of the translation (considered second-rate in comparison with the literature) and the status of women. Why anyone would amaze you that formerly were not allowed women to be literary authors and is only relegase them to the translation of texts. For this reason many professionals have been devoted in recent years to use the translation with different protest purposes in the field of language, among which the following examples are (FR > in) collected by Nuria Brufau) 2009) in his dissertation translation and gender: proposals for new ethics in the was of the transnational feminism translation:
- Make visible to women saving the resources of each linguistic system. An example is the translation to English of the inflection morphemes that mark gender in the Romance languages:
Je ne sais if avec le temps, la mémoire nous tilt à revoir in detail les visages avec lesquels on to participated d’ a mouvement et d’ an enthousiasme collectif mais je voudrais remercier toutes celles qui ici, d’une manière ou d’une autre, militant, ecrivaines, cineastes(…).
I don’t know whether, with time, memory inclines us to go over in detail the faces of those with whom we worked in a movement in collective enthusiasm, but I would like to thank all those women who, in one way or another, as activists, writers , filmmakers (…).
- Señalar y denunciar una herencia léxica de carácter excluyente (es decir, que solo destaca al hombre).